Discuss the features of Indus civilization and write down the reasons for its decline: –
From time immemorial, various civilizations have developed along with the progress of human society. The rise, fall, and decline of civilization have taken place. Harappa is the authentic document of the ancient development of India which was the center of civilization. Before the discovery of this civilization, everyone had the idea that its civilization and culture started after the arrival of Aryans in this country. But now this idea has completely changed and everyone believes that Indian civilization started to develop 5000 years ago from today. That is, this civilization is contemporary with the Assyrian civilization of Egypt, Babylon.
In 1875, archaeologist Alexander Cunningham unearthed a seal bearing an unknown identity and an unknown inscription in northeastern India. However, the seal could not be deciphered. Mohenjodaro in the Larkana district of the country finds the ruins of ancient times. Besides, the names of Kashinath Dixit Nanigopal Majumder and Sir Matir Luthar are also involved.
The first civilization to be discovered on the banks of the river Indus was formerly called the Indus Civilization. Recently, about 250 centers of civilization have been discovered across the Indus in India and beyond. Moreover, Harappa has been discovered as a much more ancient monument than Mohenjodaro, and much more important than Mohenjodaro.
Town Planning: –
Whatever the origin of the Harappan culture, its spread is more or less, and this vivid picture of the civilization is found in the various ruins of the Indus region. Planned construction is a major feature of the Harappan civilization. Historian Luther thinks that during the fall of Mohenjo-Daro, the city’s planning reached the zenith of development beyond the experimental stage.
To the west of the town of Mohenjodaro was a fort on a huge mound about 40 feet high. There were some houses in this fort area and it seems that they were the residences of the rulers. In the fort area, there was a huge paved bathroom for public use. It was 180 feet long and 108 feet wide. It is surrounded by 8 feet high brick wall and a pond in the center. The reservoir, which is 39 feet long and 23 feet wide, and 8 feet deep, had a dirty drainage system and was filled with clean water.
On this side was the size of the central granary which was 200 feet in length and 150 feet in width. A. L. Bassam compared it with the State Bank. At the same time, Sir Wheeler says that no such large granary was found anywhere in the world before the fifth century BC. Scholars have identified the ruins of other houses in the area as meeting rooms, educational institutions, associations.
The main town is built on low land to the east of the high mound in the fort area. There are several parallel roads to the north-south and east-west of the city. The roads are 9 to 30 feet wide, with numerous alleys, citizens’ houses on either side of the lanes, houses made of terracotta, and many houses were two- or three-story. Each house had a spacious yard, a storage well, and a sewerage system. Manholes were arranged to clean the drains, said Dr. A. L. Byssam said that there was no other ancient civilization before civilization. In front of every house, there was a tied Dasbin. The shops in the town were situated only on the main road. The northeast of the town was thought to be a series of small rooms in a row. Professor Govan Child said that Harappa should comply with the law relating to the municipality or housing construction.
The Indus Valley region was probably inhabited by people of the four races PottoAstroloid, Alpineoid, Mediterranean, and Mars. Although the center of this civilization was city-centered, its main or main basis was agriculture. Because this civilization is like a river. However, it can be said that the locals used to eat wheat, barley, barley, almonds, paddy, dates, motor fruits, milk, poultry, and beef, and fish as food. Destroyed spades used to keep various animals and domesticated animals of Indus Valley are known from the soil in various games.
The costumes worn by the Indus Valley tribesmen were not found in the ruins, as can be deduced from the statues found there. The Indus Valley people used cotton and woolen garments. They covered the upper and lower parts of the body with objects. Both men and women had long hair. The girls wore different types of bangs with gold and silver ribbons. They used all kinds of perfumery cosmetics and stone earrings and bangles, stools, belts, and necklaces.
They had trade relations with various places in India and outside India. Precious stones from the Deccan, copper from Rajputana, copper, conch from Katharina. Gold, silver, lead, tin were imported from Belubistan and Afghanistan, and Iran. It was exported from the Indus Valley. Cotton, cotton cloth, copper, ivory, various ivory products, cotton cloth, and cotton were the main materials of the export trade. At that time currency was not introduced. Trade and commerce were carried on through the exchange system. The trade of waterways and land routes with Crete Arctic Mesopotamia continued. The vehicles used were camels, donkeys, two-wheeled cows, and bulls. Sailing was common among them. Lothal was the oldest port in the world.
There are doubts about the existence of temples in the Harappan civilization. Many people think that some of the big buildings are temples. Although they were not temples, there was no tradition of worship by establishing idols. There are many half-naked female idols in the Indus Valley. Scholars call these pearls or bhumatrka. A seal, a tiger, an elephant, a rhinoceros, a buffalo, and five animals can be seen at the same time. The idol has two horns on its head. Professor Bassam has called it Adishiva. Shiva’s vehicle is bull but there is no bull in this movie. Among the inhabitants of the Indus were the worship of trees, fire, snakes, water, various animals, sex and vagina, and probably the worship of the sun. Swastikas and chakras, symbols of the sun, have been found in several seals. Half-baked and half-bred pearls were seen fighting with a tiger in a seal. This idol is similar to the half-aged e-Adhani idol of Gilgamesh, the hero’s helper in the Arctic. The statue is also reminiscent of the mythical Nissingh idol, which killed the diamond Kashipu. It seems that the Indus flute worshiped this male and female idol in the form of deities.
Various seals made of terracotta, copper, and bronze have been discovered in the Indus Valley. Scholars speculate that these seals were made mainly for trade and commerce. These seals have images of various animals and vessels. It seems that all these animals and ships were well known to them. Again some seals are engraved. These are the Indus script or Harappa script. It was not possible for the Indus script to cross the level of hieroglyphics. However, it is true that this script was used from right to left.
Nothing can be said with certainty about the system of governance in the Indus region. However, it can be said with certainty that although the Indus flag did not have a monarchy, there was a central ruling group. There was an advanced social organizer as an ally of this ruling group. Many feel that there was no class inequality in the Harappan culture. The small houses there called the national houses the slave class in the society.