Determine the causes of the destruction of the Harappan civilization: –
The chariot wheel of human life has been flowing through ups and downs. In the case of civilization, it is no exception. Fall is unlikely if there is a rise. This is especially true of the decline of the Harappan civilization. The Harappan civilization is considered to be one of the wonders of the world. From the patterns obtained, the planning and technology of this civilization has been inferred. It is truly astonishing. In Harappan civilization, the world's urban planning is based on urban-centered civilization and public welfare. Municipality reformed the first beginnings. However, this civilization has been declining. Approximately, 1500 AD: Harappan civilization was destroyed by BC. There is no end to the controversy among scholars as to the cause of the destruction. Historians have identified several common causes of the Indus Valley Civilization based on various studies and information obtained from the region.
Climate change: –
Based on the various data obtained from the ruins discovered at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, it can be deduced that there was regular rainfall in the Indus delta region around 3000 BC. The seals from the pioneering drawings of rhinos, elephants, etc. discovered in the ruins prove that the region received much more rainfall then than at present. And there was no shortage of forested wetlands.
Subsequently, the amount of rainfall gradually decreases. Due to lack of rainfall, the land becomes barren and dry. Due to the dryness of the land, its fertility decreases and the barren land becomes unsuitable for agriculture. With water vapor, the inner salt comes out and the surface begins to accumulate. Alexander’s expedition in the 4th century BC is supported by contemporary Greek historical accounts, as well as by the increasing aridity of the region.
The area was turned into a desert when Alexander’s army crossed the uninhabited area of Makran. Leaving the uninhabitable land, the indigenous people of the Indus region set out to establish new settlements, but the locals were also largely responsible for the land suitable for agriculture. They wasted enough forest resources to make bricks and did not have any vision for the necessary reforms for irrigation and other necessary works. As a result, considerable damage was done to agricultural work. Moreover, the conservative and social and economic politics of the local indigenous peoples were largely responsible for the decline of agriculture.
Deterioration of civic life: –
The various signs of the gradual deterioration of civic life in the Indus region became particularly acute. The civic life was largely responsible for the destruction of these Indus civilizations. Out of the seven levels of ruins found in Mohenjo-daro, the number of slums is increasing. The construction of new houses on old and abandoned foundations Part of the highway began to take over. Historians have commented that later de mohenjodaro and by inference Harappa and rest were poor shodows of former seleves’.
Flood Outbreak: –
One of the main reasons for the growing fear of floods and the influx of Mohenjo-daro is the constant accumulation of air in the Indus, which makes the river bed shallow and floods regularly during the monsoons. Excavations have revealed that a 43-foot-wide dam was built near the citizens of Mohenjo-daro, and a ditch was built to ward off the effects of the floods. Arrangements were made to raise the construction to a height of 14 feet. All these measures were taken to protect Mohenjo-daro from the floods. According to F. Diaz, the main enemy of the Harappan tribes was nature. The local tribes especially blamed nature for the downfall of the Harappan people. Excessive grazing and destruction of forest resources destroys natural divisions.
Earthquake theory: –
According to many, the city of Harappa was devastated by a devastating earthquake. And the region near the Indus Valley was the source of the quake. In support of their argument, he spoke of the scattered corpses found in Mohenjo-daro. The skeletons were probably scarred by the quake, and the corpses were not scarred by the earthquake. This doctrine is not universally accepted because, although it applies to Mohenjo-daro, earthquakes do not apply to the cities of the Harappan civilization. H. D. Shankhalia raises the question of why the city of Mohenjodaro was rebuilt seven times in a row by its inhabitants at the site of the devastation, but why did they not rebuild after the earthquake.
Change of course of Indus River: –
Rykes, Dales, Mackay, Sahani, etc., emphasize color as the cause of the fall. M.R. According to Sahani, the flood washed away the Indus culture. The Ryx said the Indus was blocked and flooded. As a result, the Indus is largely to blame. This is because the Indus and its tributaries and other rivers changed the course of this civilization. Although the course of the Indus changed, they lost importance in the port of Mohenjo-daro. Increased water scarcity and aridity led to the collapse of agriculture in Mohenjodaro and its environs, leading to the collapse of the civilization.
Influence of barbaric culture: –
The Harappan civilization population was growing so the big houses were being divided into smaller ones. Already the Harappan culture has spread rapidly in various backward areas and has engulfed the barbarism and culture of these regions. As a result, the Harappan culture has become dirty and dilapidated. Was not so responsible.
Aryan Invasion: –
Floods, epidemics, changes in the course of the Indus River, climate change for whatever reason, the Harappan civilization was weakening and in the last phase it fell in a bloody way. It is said that excavations in the Indus flag melted kitchens, well paddy, roads The bodies of those who were shot in the back of the head were not buried. Many believe that the Harappan civilization collapsed as a result of the bloody civil war, and the unclaimed corpses are evidence of this.
Wheeler, Steward, Piaget, etc. think that the invasion of the Aryans destroyed this civilization. Some arguments are presented in support of this doctrine.
- The scattered and unclaimed corpses with scars on their heads prove that all these townspeople were killed in a sudden attack. Among the scholars, the Aryans were the invaders
- The arrival of the Aryans in India and the destruction of the Harappan civilization coincided strangely. These two periods are approximately 1500-1400 AD.
- The battle of Eriupia, described in the Rikveda, is considered by many, including Wheeler, to be the battle of Harappa
- In the Rikveda, Devaraja describes Indra as ‘Purandar’ or the destroyer of the city. Needless to say, at the time of the arrival of the Aryans, there was no other city except the Harappan civilization.
- A kind of upright and long ax made of copper-bronze has been found at Chanhudaro, Jhukar etc. It bears no resemblance to the local wood, but to the Iranian wood.
There are some weaknesses in this doctrine. 1. The only Aryan invasion was not proved by the skeletons found in Mohenjodaro. Civil war, natural disasters, etc. can be blamed for this. 2. The destruction of Mohenjo-daro by the Aryan invasion but no evidence of bloody clashes in other cities of Sindh.
- It cannot be said with certainty that the invaders were Aryans. According to Mark, the invaders were residents of Balochistan. Thus Aryatov or Aryakram theory is not universally accepted. Conclusion: –
Although the above factors are believed to be the main reason for the destruction, the mentality of the inhabitants of Mohenjodaro and Harappa region was responsible for the destruction of this civilization. The main reason for the decline of this civilization and culture was the limitations of the indigenous peoples. This civilization could not spread to the fertile regions of India. The main obstacle was the heavy weapons required for deforestation. On the other hand, the infertility of the Indus Valley Civilization can be clearly understood by comparing it with the Mesopotamian civilization in ancient times. Although the Nile Valley or the Euphrates Valley were not large in size, there were many cities. But the real cities of the Indus region were two. Other cities were negligible. Thus the Aryans destroyed this civilization for various reasons.