Determine the antiquity and extent of the Harappan civilization.

Determine the antiquity and extent of the Harappan civilization. Antiquity of Harappan Civilization Determine the antiquity and extent of Harappan civilization. Older than waiting. It is very difficult to determine the antiquity of this civilization. And there is no end to the differences among scholars. In addition, the timeline of the Harappan civilization is constantly changing as new jurisprudence and information are discovered. There are two aspects to the chronological problems of this civilization, one is the lowest and the other is the determination of the highest period. The problem with determining the minimum period is much less. Because time can be determined only by the presence or absence of iron. But no trace of iron was found in the Indus Valley. The use of iron was prevalent in West Asia about 1500 years before the Christian birth. Indigenous peoples of the Indus region were closely associated with this use. Therefore, the absence of the Indus Valley cannot be explained by setting the minimum period of Harappan culture after 1500 BC. That is why scholars consider the date to be a fairly short period of time. The estimated time of arrival of Aryans in India was 1500 BC. Archaeological evidence also supports this view. On the basis of this view, the minimum period of Harappan culture can be determined. But the upper echelons of Harappan culture are much more complex. At first, historians sought to trace the origins of the Harappan culture as far back as possible, relying mainly on the similarities discovered between the Harappan culture and the Mesopotamian culture. According to Marshall, support was later obtained from data in the Indus Valley. Several seals of the Indus Valley have been found in Mesopotamia, Babylon, etc. By various tests, Mr. Gard has fixed the period of these seals from 2400 to 1500 BCE. Moreover, it can be naturally assumed that a long period of time was required for the evolution of the Indus Valley Civilization. Calculated in this way, 2400 + 500 = 3300 BC is considered to be the birth anniversary of this civilization but Wheeler refuses to accept it and he decides that the lifespan of Indus civilization is 2500-1500 BC.

Criticism: –
Wheeler’s 1000-year term, however, does not seem to be acceptable to many at present. Dates obtained from radiocarbon experiments have raised their suspicions. Dr. Agrawal examined the archaeological material and said that there was no scientific reason to date the Harappan culture to 2400 BC. Buchanan expressed a similar view. The Christian period can be traced back to 2300 AD during the development of the Indus Valley Civilization. According to him, the civilization was destroyed in 2000 BC. A fall from the tenth reign of King Gungun Sar of Larsar found a seal similar to the one in the Indus Valley. These patterns suggest that most of the seals found in excavations in various cities in Mesopotamia, similar to the Indus Valley seals, date back to the reign of Sargon, the Husain period, and the Lalsa period. Was done in front. Radiocarbon tests revealed that East Asian contact with Harappa was limited from 2350 to 2000 BC. This period, built on the radiocarbon method, is considered to be the era of the development of the Indus Civilization.

Expansion of Harappan Civilization: –
Harappa and Mohenjodaro were the first to discover prehistoric civilizations. Although the distance between these two places is about 440 miles, there is a close resemblance between the civilizations of the two places. From this resemblance it can be said without any doubt that this civilization was not regional or bounded by a certain boundary. . And all these ancient artifacts discovered in different places prove that the spread of this civilization was not limited to the area from Mohenjodaro to Harappa. Excavations in the Indus Valley, led by archaeologist MG Majumdar, have shown that the Koran stretched 60 miles northeast from Farukabad to Gujoo Bijanoy in the south and Jekokabad in the north. Many patterns have been discovered. In prehistoric times, the centers of this civilization were formed along the communication route between South and North Indus. As a result of Sir Earlstein’s excavations, traces of the Indus Valley Civilization have been discovered at Chebar Koti, Sur, Utkal U. According to Sir Earlstein, the Indus Valley Civilization was in full swing.
The discovery of various terracotta patterns at Boxer, Patna, etc., clearly shows that the influence of the Indus Valley Civilization spread to different parts of Eastern India. The pictographs discovered in the Indus region were made of metal, various classes of terracotta, at Benares and Gazipur. It is located 200 miles east of Harappa, at the foot of the Shimla Hills, on the banks of the Shatadru River in Ambala District. Evidence of Indus civilization has been discovered at Kotla Shihadkhan near Rupar. After the discovery of Lothal seaport in the coastal region of Gujarat, a new horizon of the Indus Valley has been identified. The civilization spread to a wide area in the north-eastern frontier and in some parts of the Gangetic basin near Rajputana on the surrounding coast. For these reasons, the present decision of the scholars is that the clear population of the Indus Valley Civilization was able to gradually expand to South-East India in addition to the North-East.

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