Archaeological Sources

                                                        Archaeological Sources

                                                                                ‘O talk of the past

            Archaeological Sources:-History is informative, the elements of history enliven history, help to determine the veracity of history. Historians have gathered information about the past from various sources. Is.

            There is a considerable lack of information to compose a history of ancient India because of the lack of authors according to Herodotus and Thucydides of ancient Greece. In the eleventh century, Albiruni said that Hindus were completely indifferent to history writing. Historian Tod says that much disappointment has been felt in Europe at the stability of the historical mare of Hindustan.

            Archaeological material plays an important role in composing the history of India. It is recognized as a reliable historical material for the smooth implementation of the deep revolving events of the mainstream of history. Therefore, archeological material can be called the ‘anchor of ancient Indian history’. Archaeologists compile realistic history by digging the soil with the help of scientific methods or by using various elements obtained from the upper layer of the soil, those elements are called archeological material. Monuments of history were built based on archeological material. Because history is nothing but a man and his actions. Archeology is one of the tools to know this activity.

            India’s first archaeological discovery was made during the reign of Lord Curzon. John Marshall was the director-general of the department at the time. He was also accompanied by Sir John Princeseff, Indian archaeologists Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay and Dayaram Sahani.

 

Archaeological Sources:  Scripts:

   Ancient scripts are a valuable resource in the history of ancient India. A lot of material has been collected in history from various writings on stone, iron, gold, copper, bronze, earthenware, brick houses, temple walls, and even the liberation of gods. For this reason, the script can be called a ‘living document’. So the historian Smith says that the inscription undoubtedly occupies the most important place as an element of the history of this age. According to the historian Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, the importance of the script of political historiography of ancient India is paramount.

          The importance of script as an element of history is immense for many reasons.

  •      Many inscriptions were engraved to commemorate wars, births, and deaths, or to commemorate any special event, construction of temples, land donations, preaching in royal edicts, etc. These are invaluable resources of history. The size of the particular state, the conquest of the kingdom, religious activities, and other contemporary issues are known.
  •    Puranas and various literary books have been changed and expanded over the ages. But the scripts cannot be changed under any circumstances. For this reason, the authenticity of the scripts is unquestionable.
  •      Written on stone and various metals, the inscriptions have been protected from natural disasters, insects, and the onslaught of the great age.
  •     In most of the scripts, there is no mention of the year-date, but despite this, the period of the script can be determined from the alphabet used in these scripts.
  •      From the place of receipt of the inscriptions, one can get an idea of ​​the dominance of a particular king over this power in a particular era or the size of his kingdom.
  •   The issues mentioned in the inscription and the king’s order shed light on various aspects of the socio-political and religious life of the country.
  •     From the carvings and bases of the inscriptions, it is known about contemporary stone and metal.

                  We have not yet been able to decipher many scripts due to unknown reasons as to the exact language in which the scripts were written. However, it can be said that the scripts are written in Prakrit Sanskrit, mixed dialects. Ashoka’s inscriptions are mainly written in real language.

Archaeological Sources

   Domestic and foreign scripts: –

The inscriptions in the Brahmani Christian alphabet on the conquest of Indian kings, royalties, land grants, trade, and commerce, etc., can be divided into two main parts – domestic and foreign inscriptions. Among the countries are mainly in the original language and Ashoka’s inscriptions in the Brahmi alphabet. By right. In 1837 the English historian James Princef deciphered the script. The information about Ashoka found in its literary sources gives a complete picture of his humanistic and cosmopolitan activities. Besides, Samudragupta’s ‘Allahabad Prasasti’ Chanakya Raj II Pulkeshi’s ‘Aihol Prasasti’ Gautami’s son Satkarni ‘Nasik Prasasti’ Rugad Notable.

                   The Bokhaj-Kei inscriptions found in Asia Minor outside India shed light on the arrival of the Aryans. Inscriptions found at Behisthan, Persepolis, and Nakash-i Rustam in Persia indicate Indo-Persian communication and Persian dominance in the north-eastern border region of India.

Public-private script: –

In the post-Ashoka period, inscriptions can be divided into public and private. Used carefully, it not only reveals various aspects of political history but also reflects on science and technology. Among the official inscriptions are Harishan’s ‘Allahabad Prasasti’, Chalukya Raj II Pulkeshi’s ‘Aihol Prasasti’, etc.

Private writings on the history of ancient India are used with this help. Private writings are religious writings that are circulated outside the government aviary.
Overall, it is safe to say that script has the most important place in the political history of ancient India and complements the elements of literature in social, economic, and religious historiography. Without a script, the names of kings and dynasties would remain unknown forever.

Currency: –

প্রত্নতাত্ত্বিক উপাদান

The importance of currency in the history of ancient India is undeniable, it helps a lot in verifying the authenticity of this important literary script in the history of ancient India. Paper was not introduced in ancient times. Normally there is no question of paper money as in modern times. Numerous isolated and scattered coins found in isolated parts of ancient India opened new horizons in the field of historiography. Usually-

  • 1. The period of coins can be determined from the year given in the currency.
    2. From the coins, the king’s rule, the size of the kingdom, and their religion are known.
    3. The existence of the king of ancient India is found only in coins.
    4. The political situation of that era is known from the metals used in coins.

Many coins of courage have been discovered in India. Coins are usually written in Bahlik, Sanskrit, etc. Coins of ancient India were mainly made of lead, glass, copper, silver, and gold. It is known that gold coins called ‘Knicks’ and ‘Mona’ were in circulation in the Vedic period. The coins minted at Vermind in Takshashila in 1924 are said to be the oldest Indian coins. However, in the history of the Kushan period, the coin is referred to as the backbone. The history of the Bactrian Greeks ruling the northeastern frontier shows that the only elemental coin used to name 30 kings in the region

Coins are the main component of Maurya’s historiography. The largest number of coins were found during this period. From this coin, we can learn about many rulers or events. Take, for example, the Indo-Greek rulers who came from Bactria.
Sometimes information obtained from other sources is unable to provide clear evidence of an event. The best example of this is the victory of the Gupta ruler Chandragupta II against the rulers of eastern India. Thus the defeat of Shakraj Nahpan by Gautamiputra Satkarni is indicated by the writings of the Satavahanas.
Coins of the Gupta period, however, are not particularly available. Based on this inadequacy of currency, the historian Ramsharan Sharma established the rise and development of feudalism in the period under discussion.
The importance of currency is undeniable in knowing the history of religion and culture. It is known from the currency itself that in the first half of the first century AD, Gondfarnes, the ruler of the Parthian dynasty, and Bimkadfis, the ruler of the Kushan dynasty, came to India but
Dr. Damodar theologian Koshambi has studied numismatics and said that pure gold coin is indicative of the prosperity of the empire as well as a low-quality currency is indicative of the economic misery of the empire. The religious system of the ruler is identified by the image found on the coin and the special qualities of the ruler are sometimes identified by the image found on the coin. For example, Samudragupta’s entertainment carries the patronage of music.

Architecture, sculpture, and ancient ruins: –

Remains of various types of ancient crocodiles-monasteries-temples-forts found on the ground floor or the ground, tombs, monuments, ancient artifacts, statues of gods and goddesses, pottery, pottery, and pottery are recognized as archeological elements of ancient India. These discoveries inform the social, economic, and political situation. All these discoveries can reveal the qualitative excellence of culture and art in India at different times.

Notable examples of this type of archeological excavation are the discoveries of the Harappan and Mohenjo-Daro civilizations. Earlier, we thought that the Aryan civilization was the oldest in India. But as a result of this discovery, we can also know about the pre-Aryan civilization. Evidence of the recent antiquity of Mehergarh is again found. Recently, the staff of the State Treasury and Environment Department of West Bengal dug up the soil under the Tiger Project in the area of ​​Gosaba Police Station and found some weak traces of the 2nd and 5th century AD.
Besides, the discovery of Sarnath’s stupa at Sanchi is known about the Pandava kings in Bengal. The archeological site of Mehergarh is a testament to how archeological discoveries help to understand the evolution of human civilization. Ajanta-Ellora etc. is an important pattern.

Evaluation: –

Finally, it can be said that the role of archeology is important in writing the history of the evolution of human civilization. It is possible to reconcile the future with the distant past, its importance in writing the history of literature has increased. The history of the development and evolution of Indian civilization from the pre-historic period to the pre-modern period has many complex problems which can only be solved by archeology. Emphasis must be placed on the interpretation of the neutral analysis of artifacts, as well as other types of historical material, if necessary in composing an overall history.

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